With regards to the Duchenne marker, if individuals are sensitive to the activation of this index, this would be reflected in more time viewing the eye area where appearance changes are observed when smiles involve the activation of the Cheek raiser Boraston et al. In other words, more time would be spent in the eye area for a Duchenne smile as well as an asymmetric smile than for a non-Duchenne smile since the former two include appearance changes associated with the Cheek raiser activation.
However, based on Calvo's et al. The sensitivity to asymmetry of smiles was examined using the number of saccades made from one side of the face to the other. If individuals show difficulty in perceptually distinguishing smiles that are asymmetrical compared to symmetrical, this would be reflected in similar patterns of comparison of the both sides of the face. In other words, difficulty would be reflected by an absence of difference for this index.
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In order to fully examine the perceptual-attentional hypothesis, relationships between the performance at the judgment task and an eye movements measures will be explored. If perceptual-attentional mechanisms are important in the performance, it will be reflected in a positive relationship between the measures. Six individuals 3 women, 3 men were recruited as encoders to produce the facial expression stimuli used in the experiment. Thirty-two undergraduate students 28 women, 4 men; mean age 23 years old participated in the experiment as decoders. All decoders reported normal or corrected-to-normal vision.
All encoders and decoders were Caucasian.
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Participants were treated in compliance with ethical standards in effect at Laurentian University and only those who signed the informed consent took part in the study. The materials consisted of a series of pictures of smiling facial expressions developed according to criteria from the FACS Ekman et al. The FACS also includes norms for coding of the intensity of activation.
Five levels of intensity are described from A low intensity to E extreme intensity. The intensity is coded independently for each side of the face. The first smile included both the activation of the Lip Corner Puller and the Cheek raiser at intensity D. This smile will be referred to hereafter as the symmetric Duchenne smile.
The second smile again included the activation of both AUs but the intensity varied from one side of the face to the other C vs. For each encoder, in half of the pictures the right side of the face had a more intense activation and in the other half the left side of the face was more intensely activated. This smile will be referred to as the asymmetric smile.
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This smile will be referred to as the non-Duchenne smile. These stimuli were produced by the encoders in a single laboratory session conducted under the supervision of a FACS coder. It should be noted that the stimuli are produced artificially in laboratory to present specific manifestation of indices, while controlling others parameters 1. In order to ensure that the pictures respected these criteria, they were assessed by two independent certified FACS judges.
Prototypes with a perfect inter-rater agreement were used in the study. Ninety-six trials were presented to decoders: 48 enjoyment smiles symmetric Duchenne smiles and 48 non-enjoyment smiles 24 non-Duchenne and 24 asymmetric.
The symmetric Duchenne smile was presented eight times for each of the six encoders for a total of 48 trials. The non-Duchenne smile was presented four times for each encoder for a total of 24 trials. Finally, the asymmetric smile was presented twice with the strongest intensity on the left and twice with it on the right for a total of 24 trials.
An example of a symmetric Duchenne smile Cheek raiser and Lip corner puller activated symmetrically is presented in the upper panel, one with asymmetric activation is presented in the middle panel, and non-Duchenne smile without Cheek raiser activation is presented in the lower panel. Examples of the zones are superimposed on the symmetric Duchenne smile.
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Eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II system. The apparatus has two cameras located under the participants' eyes and an infrared sensor located on the forehead. The forehead sensor allows head tracking for head movement compensation. One pupil was tracked in the current study and eye selection was determined by the most accurate calibration between the two pupils. Participants were informed that 96 pictures of smiles would be presented one by one on the computer screen.
They were informed that they would have to judge de sincerity of these smiles. After they provided their answer, the next picture was presented. Pictures were presented randomly for all participants.
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For all analyses an alpha level of 0. An analysis was also conducted on expected responses. The probability of producing the expected response was computed for each type of smile by dividing the number of expected responses by the number of occurrences of each type of smile. For the asymmetric smile, the prototypes were combined regardless of whether the more intense activation was on the left or the right side because supplementary analyses revealed no difference between these two types of smile on any of the dependent measures 2.
Perception of discriminating indices was observed using eye movement measures. Eye movements were scored with the EyeLink Dataviewer. This program presents participants fixations superimposed on presented stimuli. For each type of smiles, the proportion of time spent on the eyes, the mouth, and crows' feet was computed by dividing the time spent in the specified zone by the total time spent on the stimulus.
At least one fixation had to occur in the zone for an observation to be computed, without which an empty cell was recorded. It should be noted that presentation time was under the participants' control range from to 37, ms. Consequently, proportions were a more appropriate measure than total dwell time because it controlled for the important variations in viewing times. Nevertheless, analyses were also computed on dwell time.
An analysis was computed on the total viewing time as a function of the type of smile. Total viewing time was computed by adding all fixation durations on the stimulus from the onset of its presentation on the screen to its disappearance. Finally, numbers of saccades from one side of the face to the other were computed. More specifically, each time the participant's eye crossed an invisible vertical boundary in the middle of the stimulus a saccade was counted regardless of whether the movement was from right to left or left to right.
Error bars represent within-subject confidence intervals, at alpha level of 0. Differences are significant when error bars do not overlap by more than half their length. Post-hoc tests Tukey revealed that participants produced the expected response more often for the symmetric Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles than for the asymmetric smile. The former two did not differ significantly. Participants spent similar amounts of time looking at all types of smiles. More precisely, post-hoc tests Tukey revealed that participants spent more time viewing the asymmetric smile than the symmetric Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles.
The latter two did not differ significantly. Raw mean viewing time upper panel , Mean viewing time without outliers middle panel and median viewing lower panel. Proportion of time spent in the eyes and mouth upper panel , dwell time in the eyes and mouth middle panel and the number of saccades between each side of the face lower panel. An analysis was also computed for the proportion of time spent in the crows' feet zone as a function of type of smile.
It should be noted that the analysis is conducted on only 9 participants because 23 participants did not fixate on the crows' feet for at least one type of smile. Post-hoc tests Tukey revealed that participants made more saccades from one side of the face to the other for the asymmetric smile than for the symmetric Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles.
A series of correlations were computed between the proportion of expected responses and the measures of eye movements proportion of time in the eyes, crows' feet, and mouth; the dwell time in the eyes, crows' feet, and mouth; number of saccades; mean viewing time without outliers and median viewing time considering all available data for all participants. None of the correlations were significant.
Partial correlations were also computed between these same variables while controlling for the type of smile. More specifically, the more time participants spent in the crows' feet, the lower the accuracy. In fact, none of the other partial correlations were significant. Nevertheless, because of these previous results, patterns were examined separately for each type of smile.
The current study aimed at better understanding the role of perceptual-attentional mechanisms in the processing of morphological cues associated with enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. This was accomplished by exploring eye movements in a smile recognition task. We extended on previous literature by not only examining the importance of the Duchenne marker but also the symmetry of activation of morphological cues.
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